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List Of Symbols

African Stock Exchanges

Country
Exchanges Name
Reuters Symbols
Currency (Name)
Botswana
Botswana Stock Exchange
GB
Botswana Pula (BWP)
Ghana
Ghana Stock Exchange
GH 
Ghanaian Cedi (GHS)
Kenya
Nairobi Stock Exchange 
NR
Kenyan Shilling (KES)
Malawi
Malawi Stock Exchange
MV
Kwacha (MWK)
Morocco
Casablanca Stock Exchange
CL
Moroccan Dirham (MAD)
Nigeria
Nigerian Stock Exchange
LA
Nigerian Naira (NGN)
South Africa
JSE Securities Exchange
JO
South African Rand (ZAR)
Zambia
Lusaka Stock Exchange
LZ
Zambian Kwacha (ZMK)
Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe Stock Exchange
ZB
Zimbabwean Dollar (ZWD)


Asia Pacific Stock Exchanges

Country
Exchanges Name
Reuters Symbols
Currency (Name)
Australia
Australian Securities Exchange
AU
Australian Dollar (AUD)
Bangladesh
Dhaka Stock Exchange
DH
Bangladeshi Taka (BDT)
China
Hong Kong Stock Exchange
HK
Hong Kong Dollar (HKD)
 
Shanghai Stock Exchange
SH
Chinese Renminbi (CNY)
 
Shenzhen Stock Exchange
SZ
Chinese Renminbi (CNY)
India
National Stock Exchange of India
IN
Indian Rupee (INR)
 
Bombay Stock Exchange
BY
Indian Rupee (INR)
Indonesia
Indonesia Stock Exchange
JK
Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)
Japan
Fukuoka Stock Exchange
FU
Japanese Yen (JPY)
 
Hercules Stock Exchange
HQ
Japanese Yen (JPY)
 
JASDAQ Securities Exchange
JA
Japanese Yen (JPY)
 
Nagoya Stock Exchange
NY
Japanese Yen (JPY)
 
Osaka Securities Exchange
OK
Japanese Yen (JPY)
 
Sapporo Securities Exchange
SO
Japanese Yen (JPY)
 
Tokyo Stock Exchange
TO
Japanese Yen (JPY)
Korea
Korea Exchange
SE
Korean Won (KRW)
 
KOSDAQ
KQ
Korean Won (KRW)
Malaysia
Malaysia Exchange
KU
Malaysian Ringgit (MYR)
New Zealand
New Zealand Exchange
NZ
New Zealand Dollar (NZD)
Pakistan
Karachi Stock Exchange
KA
Pakistani Rupee (PKR)
Philippines
Philippine Stock Exchange
PH
Philippine Peso (PHP)
Singapore
Singapore Exchange
SG
Singapore Dollar (SGD)
Sri Lanka
Colombo Stock Exchange
SL
Sri Lankan Rupee (LKR)
Taiwan
GreTai Securities Market
OT
Taiwan Dollar (TWD)
 
Taiwan Stock Exchange
TW
Taiwan Dollar (TWD)
Thailand
Stock Exchange of Thailand
TH
Thai Baht (THB)


European Stock Exchanges

Country
Exchanges Name
Reuters Symbols
Currency (Name)
Austria
Vienna Stock Exchange
VI
Euro (EUR)
Belgium
Euronext - Brussels 
BT
Euro (EUR)
Bulgaria
Bulgarian Stock Exchange 
BG
Bulgarian Lev (BGN) 
Croatia
Zagreb Stock Exchange 
ZG
Croatian Kuna (HRK)
Cyprus
Cyprus Stock Exchange 
CP
Euro (EUR)
Czech Republic
Prague Stock Exchange
PR
Czech Koruna (CZK)
Denmark
OMX Nordic Exchange - Copenhagen 
KO 
Danish Krone (DKK)
Estonia
OMX Baltic Exchange - Tallinn
ET 
Euro (EUR) 
Finland
OMX Nordic Exchange - Helsinki 
HE 
Euro (EUR) 
France
Euronext - Paris 
FR
Euro (EUR) 
Germany
Berlin Stock Exchange 
BE 
Euro (EUR) 
 
Dusseldorf Stock Exchange 
DU 
Euro (EUR)
 
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
FF 
Euro (EUR)
 
Munich Stock Exchange
MU
Euro (EUR)
 
Stuttgart Stock Exchange
FT
Euro (EUR)
Greece
Athens Exchange 
AT 
Euro (EUR) 
Holland
Euronext - Amsterdam
AE 
Euro (EUR)
Hungary
Budapest Stock Exchange
BU 
Hungarian Forint (HUF)
Ireland
Irish Stock Exchange
DB 
Euro (EUR)
Italy
Borsa Italiana
MI 
Euro (EUR)
Latvia
OMX Baltic Exchange - Riga
RG
Latvian Lats (LVL)
Lithuania
OMX Baltic Exchange - Vilnius
LV 
Lithuanian Litas (LTL)
Luxembourg
Luxembourg Stock Exchange
LU
Euro (EUR)
Macedonia
Macedonian Stock Exchange
MN 
Macedonian Denar (MKD)
Norway
Oslo Stock Exchange
OS 
Norwegian Krone (NOK)
Poland
Warsaw Stock Exchange
WA 
Polish Zloty (PLN)
Portugal
Euronext - Lisbon
LB 
Euro (EUR)
Romania
Bucharest Stock Exchange
RO 
Romanian Leu (RON)
Russia
Russian Trading System
RS 
Russian Ruble (RUB)
Slovakia
Bratislava Stock Exchange
BS 
Slovak Koruna (SKK)
Slovenia
Ljubljana Stock Exchange
LJ 
Euro (EUR) 
Spain
Barcelona Stock Exchange
BC
Euro (EUR)
 
Madrid Stock Exchange
MD 
Euro (EUR)
Sweden
OMX Nordic Exchange - Stockholm
SK 
Swedish Krona (SEK)
Switzerland
Berne eXchange
BN 
Swiss Franc (CHF)
 
SIX Swiss Exchange
EB 
Swiss Franc (CHF)
Turkey
Istanbul Stock Exchange
IS 
United Kingdom
London Stock Exchange
LN 
British Pound (GBP)


Latin American Stock Exchanges

Country
Exchanges Name
Reuters Symbols
Currency (Name)
Argentina
Buenos Aires Stock Exchange
BA 
Argentine Peso (ARS)  
Brazil
BM&FBovespa
BR
Brazilian Real (BRL)
Chile
Santiago Stock Exchange
SN
Chilean Peso (CLP)
Colombia
Colombia Stock Exchange
BO
Colombian Peso (COP)
Ecuador
Guayaquil Stock Exchange
GU
U.S. Dollar (USD) 
 
Quito Stock Exchange
QT
U.S. Dollar (USD) 
Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange 
MX
Mexican Peso (MXN) 
Peru
Lima Stock Exchange 
VL
Peruvian Nuevo Sol (PEN)
Uruguay
Montevideo Stock Exchange 
MV 
Uruguayan Peso (UYU) 
Venezuela
Caracas Stock Exchange 
CA 
Venezuelan Bolivar Fuerte (VEF) 


Middle Eastern Stock Exchanges

Country
Exchanges Name
Reuters Symbols
Currency (Name)
Bahrain
Bahrain Stock Exchange
BH
Bahraini Dinar (BHD)
Egypt
Egyptian Stock Exchange
CI
Egyptian Pound (EGP)
Israel
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange
TV
Israeli New Sheqel (ILS)
Jordan
Amman Stock Exchange
AJ
Jordanian Dinar (JOD)
Lebanon
Beirut Stock Exchange
LE
Lebanese Pound (LBP)
Palestine
Palestine Securities 
PL
Jordanian Dinar (JOD)
United Arab Emirates
NASDAQ Dubai
 
U.A.E. Dirham (AED)


North American Stock Exchanges

Country
Exchanges Name
Reuters Symbols
Currency (Name)
Bermuda
Bermuda Stock Exchange
HM
Bermudian Dollar (BMD)
Canada
Canada National Stock Exchange
L
Canadian Dollar (CAD)
 
Toronto Stock Exchange
T
Canadian Dollar (CAD)
 
TSX Venture Exchange
V
Canadian Dollar (CAD)
United States
American Stock Exchange
A
U.S. Dollar (USD) 
NASDAQ OMX BX
B
U.S. Dollar (USD)
Chicago Stock Exchange
M
U.S. Dollar (USD)
 
NASDAQ
O
U.S. Dollar (USD)
 
National Stock Exchange
U.S. Dollar (USD)
 
New York Stock Exchange
N
U.S. Dollar (USD)
 
NASDAQ OMX PHLX
X
U.S. Dollar (USD)

Recent Blog Entries

News Links



 

A caricature of the investment world divides it into two camps: value investors, who buy stocks that have fallen in price in the belief that the rest of the market has missed a bargain; and growth or momentum investors, who buy stocks that have gone up in the hope that they turn out to have been “cheap at any price.”

Value investors dispute the efficient market hypothesis, which suggests that prices reflect all available information, and see investment opportunities created by discrepancies between stock price and the underlying value of company assets.
There are essentially two ways of analyzing investments: fundamental analysis and technical analysis. With the former, investors try to calculate the value of an asset, comparing the present value of the likely future cash flows with its current price.
With the latter, they focus exclusively on the asset’s price data, asking what its past price behavior indicates about its likely future price behavior. Market strategists believe that history tends to repeat itself.

They make price predictions on the basis of published data, looking for patterns and correlations, assessing trends, support and resistance levels. The true objective of technical analysis is to determine whether or not the ingredients of a healthy bull market are present — and to watch out for possible warning flags before a major decline or bear strikes.
The “efficient market hypothesis” (EMH) says that at any given time, asset prices fully reflect all available information —that price movements do not follow any patterns or trends.

This means that past price movements cannot be used to predict future price movements. Rather, prices follow what is known as a “random walk,” an intrinsically unpredictable pattern.

In the world of the strong form EMH, trying to beat the market becomes a game of chance not skill.

A central challenge to the EMH is the existence of market anomalies: reliable, widely known and inexplicable patterns in returns, such as the “January effect.” In reality, markets are neither perfectly efficient nor completely inefficient.

All are efficient to a certain degree, but some more than others.
The need of institutional investors, such as pension funds, for objective information about investment managers —their people, products, processes, performance and principles —has led to the development of the institutional investment consulting industry.

Consultants can provide a useful service, often if pushed to go beyond mere support for ideas already grasped.

But they might just be needed to give credibility, especially to bodies like pension committees of boards of directors, where the staff people need more “cover.”
This relatively new focus of investor enthusiasm is always exciting with something happening all the time, somewhere in the world, promising the opportunity for huge profits.

However, emerging market investing may be a long-term cyclical phenomenon and not a steady, one-way path to riches. Certainly, the emerging market investment phase of more than the last decade is over.

Not only has capital been destroyed and confidence shattered but the idea of capital flows for superior return from developed countries to needy, developing ones is gone.
Going long” an investment means buying it in the expectation of a future price rise. “Going short” is the opposite: selling something you do not own in the hope of buying it back more cheaply in the future.

When you go long, your loss is limited to what you paid for the stock. But when you go short, your losses are potentially without limit as the buyback price may rise ever higher above the price at which you sold. Why sell short?

The obvious answer is to profit from the impending decline of an overpriced stock. But shorting requires a tough-minded pessimism, a contrarian turn of mind or a “gloom and doom” view of the world.
The role of derivatives for managing risk through the financial markets is frequently misunderstood. Yet these instruments — futures, options and a multitude of variations are packages of the basic components of risk: they more than anything else traded come close to the theoretically ideal instruments for the trading of risk.

Derivatives can turn stocks into bonds and vice versa, and can pinpoint, very precisely, specific risks and returns that are packaged within a complex structure.

Risk management is essential in a modern market economy.
The essence of quantitative investing is crunching numbers. Anything that can go into a digital computer is fair input. And since computers are mostly digital and linear programs are rigid, “quant” analysis tends to be repetitively structured and rich in reliance on back-testing.

The central themes of quant investing are that history reveals enduring patterns of price behaviour, which can be unlocked by statistical techniques; that risk of loss is closely related to volatility, which is related to return; and that management of risk, return, covariance and time frames can be usefully predictable.

Even quantitative back-testing is intuitive “data mining” — determining what patterns exist in a finite sample of numbers. Investment strategies based on hindsight often fail.